Symptoms of Gastrointestinal Problems

Gastrointestinal problems will have disorders in particular organs that include intestines, stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, liver and the leading ducts between organs. Gastrointestinal problems may cause an extensive array of symptoms and assessment of a physician is important to identify the causes of the problems.

Those who are experiencing heartburn that stays after modifications to dietary habits and home treatment might be having a gastrointestinal disorder. People with Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) will experience constant heartburn, bad taste and indigestion. People who have gastric disorders like ulcer may have heartburn too that may come with indigestion.

Bowel Changes
People who are experiencing gastrointestinal problems can feel changes in their bowel movements. They might be having constipation and diarrhea from gastrointestinal problems like diverticulitis and hepatitis. They are also likely to experience bloody stools, light colored stools and mucus-filled tools.

People who have gastrointestinal problems may experience uncontrollable or frequent gas. Peptic ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome and celiac disease may cause excessive and painful flatulence. These people with such problems may have constant belching that may happen frequently after taking in some fibrous foods or fermented or carbonated beverages.

Those with gastrointestinal problems like diverticulitis are likely to have abdominal and stomach tenderness. Other gastrointestinal problems including Crohn’s disease can cause cramping and pain during a bowel movement. People with peptic ulcers can experience frequent stomach discomfort and pain that becomes worse when they lay down.

Common Gastrointestinal Problems
There are millions of people in the world who are experiencing gastrointestinal problems that range from heartburn, indigestion, ulcer, diarrhea, gas, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). These problems can cause discomfort and may be frustrating.

These problems affect both men and women of all ages, though they are more common in women. Acute problems can be treated easily and changes to lifestyles are usually recommended for these.

Constipation– This is described as a decrease in the volume and frequency of bowel movements. This usually comes with discomfort that passes a motion or permanent lower abdomen discomfort.

Indigestion– This problem is associated with too much stomach acid which could be a result of a huge alcohol intake or greasy and spicy meal.

Diarrhea – An increase in frequency of bowel movements and the discharge of loose watery stools. A person  with diarrhea may also have abdominal cramps and nausea.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) – This is a functional bowel disorder which means that the function of the digestive tract is impaired. A person may experience abdominal bloating, pain and gas, mucus in stool. irregular bowel habits with constipation, diarrhea or both.

Ulcer– This condition is described by a small hole or erosion in the gastrointestinal tract.

Gas– The presence of gas in the digestive tract is demonstrated by abdominal pain, bloating and bleaching.

Causes of Gastrointestinal Problems
Complaints associated to digestive system usually occur in an ambulatory clinic setting. The uneasiness or discomfort can be stress or diet or psychogenic related. It is possible for such systematic disease to manifest as gastrointestinal symptoms. The majority of problems tend to overlap with organic and functional causes. The following are the major causes of gastrointestinal problems.

  1. Functional Disturbances
    1. Deficiency of secretory IgA
    2. Deficiency of stomach acid
    3. Insufficiency of pancreatic digestive enzymes
  2. Microbial imbalances
    1. Viral infections
    2. Parasitic infections
    3. Bacterial overgrowth
    4. Normal flora imbalances
  3. Destructive agents
    1. Excessive alcohol
    2. Environmental chemicals
    3. Food vulnerabilities
    4. Pharmaceutical agents
    5. Oxidative stress

Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Problems

Diagnosing gastrointestinal problems will vary according to the type of gastrointestinal disorder. Usually, the symptoms, medical history and physical examination of patients will be the basis of the diagnosis.

Constipation- The doctor may perform an examination to the thyroid gland and the nervous system as well as check medications to determine that such constipation is not a side effect of something else. Typically constipation cases are either diagnosed in a medical clinic or self-diagnosed.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBS) – It is not easy to diagnose inflammatory bowel disease and it is usually mistaken for uncomfortable bowel syndrome. An irritable bowel syndrome does not demonstrate the inflammation that is typical to ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s diseases. The diagnosis for IBS is performed according to the symptoms, physical examination and medical history of the person.

Diarrhea- Apart from asking about the medical history, performing physical examination and testing routine urine, stool and blood tests, the physician may recommend colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy test for a case of diarrhea.

Indigestion- The physician is likely to ask about the symptoms of indigestion, any taken medication and the lifestyle of the patient. The GP may further perform other examinations like pressing gently some areas of the body to know whether or not it is painful.

Hemorrhoids- This disorder is diagnosed by performing a rectal examination. For internal hemorrhoids, a physician will insert an anoscope. The entire rectum will be examined by using a proctoscope. Sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy can also be performed to examine the inner part of the colon and reveal other gastrointestinal bleeding causes.

Flat Foot/Feet: Treatment and Other Interventions

Treatment and Other Interventions

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Some people who have flatfeet would rather try a self treatment like attempting to align their lower limbs, which may result to unpleasant symptoms. In most flatfoot cases, treatment is not a top priority.

Here are some things that a flatfoot person could do to feel more comfortable:
For Pain- it could be relieved through by being smart in selecting on what shoes to wear, by making good choices in footwear such as adhering to supportive, well-fitted foot gears. Patients may report improvements in pain perception when the wider fitting shoes are used.

Fitted Insoles/ Orthotics- these are customized arch supports that decreases the pressure in the arch and alleviates pain when the patient over-pronates. When it is worn, The patient totally benefits from wearing orthotics. if not, the pain and comfort won’t be there. It gives them comfort and relieves pain.

Wedge- This works best for patients who are suffering from tendonitis of the posterior tibia. It is inserted along the orthotic’s inner part which relieves the extra burden carried by the tendons.

Ankle Braces- Patients with posterior tibial tendinitis would benefit the most until the inflammation subsides.

Rest- It is the simplest intervention, along with abstaining activities that makes the feet feel more uncomfortable. This allows the feet to heal and for increased comfort.

Insole and Painkiller- A one-two punch of these two drugs could help patients with a ruptured tendon, as well as those suffering from arthritis. Surgical intervention may be done to those clients who could not tolerate Insoles and Painkillers to relieve tension, pressure and pain.

Surgical Intervention for Children- It is necessary for the child if it has fused bones due to congenital malformations or defects that result into having a flat foot at the time of birth. These bones are separated during this operation.

Weight Management- This is most applicable to obese patients, since it relieves the pressure on those flatfeet. Losing pounds may decrease the episodes of the symptoms.

Flat Foot/Feet: Signs and Symptoms

Flat Foot (pes planus) may present a single or groups of symptoms.

Foot Pain
People with flat foot experiences pain in the inner side of the ankle along with some swelling, the entire foot, the foot’s arch, the calf, knee, hips, the back and in the lower leg area in general.

Individuals with flat feet may also experience stiffness in either or in both feet.

Pain and Swelling
Lower Leg Pain is more prominent for flat-footed people. The ankle is the most common site of swelling in persons with flat feet.

When wearing a shoe, a person with flat feet will have an uneven shoe wear and a collapse of the shoe towards inside the flat foot. The shoes may look like unevenly worn.

Foot Arch Abnormalities
Lowered foot arch and flat foot arch are the most common manifestations of a person with a flat foot. One or both feet may be planted flat on the ground, either no arch or showing just a slight arch.

Calluses are thickened areas of the skin that has been repeatedly exposed by trauma or friction.

The flat part of the foot might look reddish due to the repeated pressure that it takes from the ground or the soles of the shoes.

Altered Functioning of the Foot and Postural Problem

The client with a flat foot might find it hard to walk normally due to the alterations of the surface area at the foot’s base. The person might present a clumsy gait.

Flat Foot Description
Normally, people have a gap under the arch of the foot when they stand straight. This arch, which is found in the inner foot, is slightly elevated from the ground. But a person with no arch in their foot base is known to have a flat foot. Flatfoot or pes planus, is a common disorder in which the longitudinal arch of the foot is diminished, or totally absent in some cases.

The feet of these people have been observed to roll over to the inner side when they are standing or walking, and the result- feet that are pointing in an outward direction. A considerable number of people with fallen arches (flat feet) have a painless experience and even present no problems at all. Unfortunately for some, they experience intense pain especially when connecting muscles and ligaments have been strained. Pain may also arise when the leg joints are greatly affected. If ankles turn inward because of the condition, the prone areas are the feet, ankles and the knees.

Genetic Factors
Some people present a flat foot since when they were a child. An inborn development defect has resulted to most flat-footed children, but even when a person ages, he or she could still have a flatfoot, especially postpartum mothers. In general, flatfoot runs in the family.  ’s blood.

Weak Arches
The arch of the foot may be there when no weight is placed on it, such as when a person sits. But when they stand up with the feet on the ground, it flattens as pressure is applied onto it.

Injuries and Disorders
Injuries such as ruptured tendons might predispose a person to have a flatfoot. Nervous system Disorders such as spina bifida and muscular dystrophy, Diabetes and Pregnancy places an individual at a higher risk.

As a person ages, his or her risk for flatfoot also increases due to overuse of the feet throughout the person’s lifespan, thus the wear and tear.


For people who are asymptomatic yet have flatfeet, they do not usually care seeing the doctor or a foot specialist called podiatrists. Have an appointment with them is necessary, especially when they ask you questions for assessment:

  1. If the fallen arches have just developed days ago
  2. If pain is experienced in specific areas like the feet, ankles and the entire lower limbs
  3. The observed symptoms does not improve, even if the person wears supportive, well-fitting shoes
  4. Either the left, right or both feet are getting flatter each passing day
  5. If there is stiffness felt in the feet
  6. The feet feels unwieldy and seems like to carry loads of weight

Licensed health care professionals instruct their patients to stand straight, do some walking or just by looking and examining the client’s feet. Aside from those exams, the physician will also scan for the client’s past medical history, such as previous illnesses, history of accidents or trauma and pregnancies. The feet will be observed from the rear to the frontal views for any changes in shape and the presence or absence of arches. The patient may be asked to stand tippy-toes while the podiatrist or physician takes a look at the shape and any altered functions on both feet.

Depending on a case-to-case scenario, the doctor might ask for diagnostic results such as an X-ray, CT scan and MRI Orders. The CT scan gives a 2-D image while MRI uses electromagnetic waves. Both are utilized to examine abnormalities found in the bone.

Bunions: Signs and Symptoms

Bunions may present symptoms or it may go asymptomatic, or symptom-free at all. It presents big problems to the foot, especially when wearing shoes or walking around. Some symptoms are listed below.

Foot Pain
This is the most frequent symptom of a bunion, or a Hallux Vagus. It involves the affected area, especially when walking around or wearing unfitting shoes. It is relieved by rest. Persistent or intermittent pain may be felt.

Changes in the Big Toe
There is an enlargement in the base of the big toe. A bulging bump may also be felt in the outer area. There is also swelling, redness and a sore feeling around the big toe joint. Thickening of the skin at the base of the big toe may also be evident. The marked prominence of the medial aspect of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is the most apparent of all changes.

Corn and Callus Formation
Both corns and calluses form when the first and second toes overlap.
A corn is an area of hyperkeratosis (an overgrowth of a horny layer of epidermis) which is produced by an internal pressure due to the underlying bone that is prominent because of a congenital or acquired abnormality, commonly arthritis or an external pressure, such as ill-fitting shoes.

Calluses, on the other hand is a discretely thickened area of the skin that has been exposed to constant pressure or friction. It may be produced from flawed foot mechanics.
In acute bursitis, symptoms of reddish site, edema or swelling and tenderness of the affected site may be manifested.

Bunions (Hallux Vagus)
Hallux Vagus or Bunions is a deformity that is defined as an unnatural, bony hump that is formed at the base of the big toe where it joins to the foot. The big toe in most cases deviate towards the other toes, where it also pushes to the first metatarsal bone- the bone directly behind the big toe. Thus, a bunion in this case, is formed. Since these produce intense pain, they are easily vulnerable to excess friction and pressure and friction from shoes and could lead to the formation of calluses.

There are two classifications of Bunions. The first one is an acute bunion, which causes a very sharp, intense pain. It proceeds after a bursitis, which is a sudden outcropping of a fluid-filled sac. It could eventually progress into the second type, Hallux Vagus, where it is described a chronic yet pain-free deformity that includes a permanent stiffening of the bones.

Causes of Bunions
There are different factors that cause bunion formation, from preferences to personal factors.

Women are more predisposed to bunion than men, due to the different shoes that they wear that causes foot deformities.

Footwear Choices
After years of wearing tight, poorly fitted shoes such as high heels and shoes with pointed tips might also be a predisposing factor for bursitis. These kinds of shoes might give the foot an unusual shape. Ballet shoes by ballet dancers could also lead to bunions.

Genetic Factors
When a family member of a bloodline has experienced bunions, a person might be at risk to get one if he or she continues to wear ill-fitting foot gear. Congenital abnormalities of the foot bones may also be a predisposing factor.


Although bunions do not really require medical intervention, appropriate interventions must still be done to properly diagnose a bunion.
The foot specialist (podiatrist) might ask these questions as part of the assessment:

  1. If there is a persistent foot pain or pain in the big toe
  2. A bump on the joint of the big toe that can easily be seen
  3. If there is lessened movement in the big toe and foot
  4. If there are no shoes that fits the feet well

The foot anatomy is also examined for any obvious changes. Diagnostic aids such as X-ray or Radiographs of the foot are done to test the integrity of the joints in the affected area, and it confirms any deviations of bones from the normal, such as the great toe and the metatarsal bone. It is also effective for screening other disorders, such as Arthritis and Gout. X-ray films are also an excellent way of calculating proper toe alignment. These X-rays are taken in a standing (weight-bearing) and non-standing (lying) positions. The angles are measured in connection with the examination and the clinical impressions so surgery could be scheduled. Other examinations to be considered include an MRI and CT scan. Each of these tests has its own advantages and disadvantages in a case-to-case basis. Physical examinations may be included to check looseness of ligaments and tendons around the affected site.

Blood and other pre-operative tests may be done if a person is scheduled for surgery. These are useful in detecting infection in site and for any deviations from normal CBC values.

Bunions: Treatment


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A variety of surgical and non-surgical treatments could be used to treat bunions. Interventions that don’t suggest surgery include resting the foot by avoiding excessive walking and wearing loose (wider) shoes or sandals that can oftentimes relieve the irritating pain produced by a bunion. An advantage of wearing walking shoes over high heels is that they don’t tug the big toe outward.

Anti-inflammatory medications could help relieve inflammation as well as pain. The medications include the following:

  1. Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin, Ecotrin)
  2. Ibuprofen (Advil, Children’s Advil/Motrin, Medipren, Motrin,  Nuprin, PediaCare Fever)
  3. Naproxen (Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn, Aleve)

Local cold pack applications could also help in relieving pain and swelling. Stretching exercises are also effective in decreasing tension on the inner part of a joint of a bunion. Orthotic devices such as Bunion Splints are worn at night to provide further relief from pain. Depending on the foot structure, custom insoles might provide additional support and facilitates repositioning.

A local injection of Cortisone may be administered for inflammation at the base of the big toe. Antibiotics are prescribed for possible signs of skin breakdown or an impending infection. While the interventions mentions could be effective in controlling symptoms, patients should prevent irritation of the bunion through modification of footwear choices along with proper foot care.

If persistent pain is felt, resorting to the Surgical Intervention might be the alternative option. Bunion surgery aims to correct toe deformities and relieve pain experience. It is classified into two categories, namely the head and base procedures. In the head procedure, an operation is done on the joint of the big toe while the base procedure, on the other hand, is done on the joint behind the largest toe. There are numerous sub procedures that are done in different sections of the toe mainly because of its different components. Crutches for two weeks may be required for the patient after undergoing the surgery to keep the foot relaxed and dry. Stitches and surgical dressings are changed after a week.

Knee Arthroscopic Surgery


A procedure performed in the knee-joint area, Knee Arthroscopic Surgery is involved in making a small incision in the skin to repair tissue injuries in bones, tissues and ligaments surrounding the knee and joint. By using an arthroscope, a small instrument used along a guiding lighted scope connected to a television screen. By creating three incisions in the knee, additional instruments could be placed inside. This surgery could be classified into minor and major procedures. The minor procedures involve flushing and lavage and debridement, which is the smoothing of bone surfaces and tissue fragments that are linked with Osteoarthritis. The major ones include realigning a dislocated knee and doing grafting operations of the ligaments.

Prior to surgery, an intensive examination must be done of the causes of trauma and pain that lead to the injury of the knee. A leaps and bounds adjustment have been made in arthroscopic surgeries which allows lesser time of recovery, less anesthesia administered and less incisions to be done.

The purpose of the surgery involves two general surgical classifications- first, an acute injury that destabilizes the knee and second, pain management for floating or displaced cartilage and rough bone. Acute injuries come about from traumatic injuries suffered by the knee tissues such as those suffered in sports accidents. This leads to unstable knees, knee dislocations and deficiency of knee mobility. Pain management surgeries alleviate discomforts of the knee due to Osteoarthritis. As the name itself suggests, it relieves pain and discomfort in the knee area mostly caused by chronic conditions and uses elective surgical procedures to treat bone and cartilage surfaces.

Mostly done in an outpatient setting, Knee Arthroscopic Surgeries are done usually under a General Anesthesia, Spinal or Epidural, a regional block or local anesthetic are also sometimes being used. Surgery could commence if enough anesthesia is being administered. An IV Line is tagged upon admission for fluid administration. After surgery, sterile dressings are placed over the incision site while a Brace Wrap is placed in the region surrounding the joint.

Arthroscopic Surgery for Acute Injuries
The knee stabilizes itself with the help of four ligaments, namely the Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligaments (ACL/PCL) and the Medial and Lateral Collateral Ligaments (MCL/LCL). When one of these ligaments is torn by means of trauma or sports injury, the knee “buckles”, or it gives way. These ligaments will also make the knee track an unusual direction rather than its normal movement. Multiple tears in knee ligaments would also lead to more repairs done in the affected knee.

Patello-Femoral Syndrome (PFS)
A patient’s patella without a good support might cause it to be shaky and agonizingly painful when you move. Chronic problems might arise in people with proper patella tracking in the femoral area. It is linked to conditions that include foot pronation or if not by just simply overusing the muscles. As the patella is moved, examination can be done by the physician around the surrounding cartilage that has increasing friction. The ease of movement is increased by smoothing the damaged cartilage which in turn gets rid of pain. A tendon can make the patella track off the center part of the femur. With lateral release surgery, the patella is enforced back in its usual movements.

Pain Management
Arthroscopic Knee Surgeries could also treat a torn Meniscus, a cartilage resembling the shape of a crescent which pads the knee. Without this internal knee cushion, it could result to extreme pain. Although it could happen in sport-related injuries, it is more evident in Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis. A Lavage and Debridement is a procedure in which the surgeon flushes out floating or displaced tissue pieces. Then the bone surface is smoothened and leveled to decrease the amount of pain.

Diagnosis and Preparation

Knee injuries are more common in athletes who play contact sports and to elder people due to the decreased function of the knees, the ones who carries most of the body’s weight. Diagnosing knee injuries or damage contains a Physical Examination, X-rays and more thorough diagnostic imagery examinations such as CT scan and MRI. If clients experience intense knee pain, then they consult a physician, which decides if that entails for an operation and rehabilitation after it.

Arthroscopic Surgery is a bloodless surgery and it also presents lesser complications. The patient’s underlying condition is one reliable factor if he/she is eligible to go for an Arthroscopic procedure. Another important thing to consider to consider is the level of the person’s tolerance to the anesthetic being used. Lung and heart functions should be ideal for the procedure, including conditions such as Heart Failure, High Blood Pressure and Diabetes Mellitus. Some contraindicated medications should also be withdrawn, such as anticoagulants or blood thinners.

Physical Examinations, Blood Tests and Urine samples are taken prior to the surgery as part of the evaluation during the pre-operative phase. Patients 50 years old and above who are experiencing heart and lung problems have to obtain an ECG result together with a Chest X-Ray. If the body is experiencing signs of infection, the surgical procedure is immediately cancelled unless results reveal a possible joint infection. After the two hours surgery, the patient is required to rest until anesthetic effects are cleared out. Most outpatient surgeries instruct the person who underwent Arthroscopic Knee Surgery to avoid driving and doing activities that require mental stimulation. If follow-up visits are to be done, it is made a week after when the dressings placed could be thrown off. the dressings are removed.

Knee Arthroscopic Surgery – Treatment

Treatments and Aftercare

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Ligament and Patellar Surgeries
In scenarios where there is knee displacement or severe damage of the ligaments, Arthroscopic surgery is done often with ligament grafting. It involves getting a tendon tissue to be utilized for grafting and for creating holes in the femur, tibia or in the two bones with a drill. For 6-8 weeks, the person who underwent surgery might need to utilize crutches. The surgeon or any orthopedic specialist would strongly suggest a strength rehabilitation course that could help regain knee strength and function. The patient could resume his or her sporting or any physical activity when the doctor says so, depending largely on the person’s size, age and overall health status. The physician would make a thorough assessment first before deciding that it’s time for the client to get back to activities of daily living.

Patellar surgeries offer 90% chance of avoiding a patellar dislocation, despite a feeling of pain and swelling post surgery. It greatly depends on the rehabilitation plan being handed out for the patient to adhere.

Lavage and Debridement Surgeries

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For a short period of time, the leg must be slightly elevated to facilitate drainage. While walking, a crutch or knee immobilizer adds up strength and assurance. Physical therapy is highly recommended. Presence of dislodged blood clots may happen when there is pain and swelling at surgical site.

Different alternatives could be tested when several factors and options don’t serve up well. One of which is a conservative treatment which stands for RICE, which was being endorsed by the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons. The RICE method stands for the following:
R- Rest. Allowing the knee to rest induces faster ligament healing.
I – Ice. Apply ice at the site for 15-20 minutes.
C- Compression. Compress the site with by utilizing a brace or bandage.
E- Elevation. Elevate the knee if necessary. This is to facilitate drainage and reduce swelling.

For pain management in Arthritis cases, anti-inflammatory drugs, weight management and regular exercise could aid the knee as it builds up strength.

Surgical Surgery Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation after spine surgery is necessary to help patients gain the most benefit from their surgery. Initially, rehabilitation is helpful for patients to recover from the surgery as quickly and effectively as possible. A physical therapist typically work with the patient to help him get back into better physical condition.

  1. Controlling Pain after Spine Surgery- A physical therapist will help manage pain after spine surgery. Pain control is a necessary step to allow patients to regain strength. The physical therapist many use various means to help alleviate pain and this may include certain spine positions, ice application, some types of movements and electrical devices like TENS unit.
  2. Recovery Exercises after Spine Surgery- A spine surgery patient can have better recovery with exercises. Exercise is the key to removing fatigue and staying away from re-injury. A physical therapist is expected to create an exercise programs that are tailored to particular patients based on information of the precise type of spine surgery and the factors that are advantageous for the spine of the patient under several conditions.
  3. Training Program after Spine Surgery- The physical therapist will make a training program for the particular patient while considering specific surgery, body tissue conditions and body types. He should focus on facilitating muscles in areas where a special training may be needed by the muscles to gain strength and give stability after the spine surgery.  Individualized physical therapy may be helpful also for areas where the flexibility and mobility of the patient has been restricted by spine surgery.

Spine Surgery

Spine Surgery

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Spine surgery is a rare initial treatment for back pain but there are some emergencies that are likely to require surgical treatment. In majority of patients, such surgery is considered after a long course of traditional and conservative therapy. As back pain usually takes some time to resolve, rushing to spine surgery may not be the perfect idea. Usually, doctors recommend at least 3 to 6 months of conservative treatment before taking into account spine surgery. There are various types of spine surgery and these include:

  1. Spine Fusion- This is a surgery that is performed to associate together individual vertebrae within the spine. When the vertebrae have a problem, the doctor may advise this procedure to eradicate the movement that exists within that area of the spine.
  2. Lumbar disc replacement- This procedure is considered by doctors as unsafe compared to cervical disc replacement surgery. This is a new treatment option for some types of low back pain.
  3. Lumbar discectomy- A discectomy is a procedure that involves the removal of a herniated disc from the spinal canal that causes the nerve pressure. A certain fragment of the normal spinal disc is expected to be dislodged when a disc herniation exists.
  4. Foramenotomy- This is performed to relieve nerve pressure by pinching the nerve with more than just herniated disc. This procedure removes a part of the bone and some tissues that compress the nerve as it gets out from the spinal column.
  5. Laminectomy- This is performed to relieve spinal cord pressure. This is usually used to treat conditions like spondylolisthesis and spinal stenosis.

Spine Surgery Risks and Complications
Complications of spine surgery are always a risk and this must be considered carefully before deciding to have a surgical procedure.

Risks of Local Anesthetics- There are a lot of spine surgeries that are done under local anesthetic. This involves performing the whole procedure amid consciousness of the patient. Local anesthetic enables surgeries to be performed with less risk of paralysis.

Risks of General Anesthetic- General anesthetic involves the performance of a surgical procedure while the patient is unconscious. There a few patients who are allergic to some anesthetics. In rare cases, a patient can go into anaphylactic shock or even die. It is likely for general anesthetic to cause lung problems. It may lead to pulmonary infections and even pneumonia. This anesthetic increases heart attack risks as well as embolism and stroke.

Infections/Complications of Spine Surgery– Any surgical procedure carries a risk. Some infections might occur in the skin or in some deeper level of the wounds created during the surgery. A procedure that utilizes bone grafts out of a cadaver to reinforce a fusion is very prone to infections. When the spinal canal is infected, the patient will become sick or even die.

Spinal Fluid Leaks-There is a possibility of a dural tear in any procedures done within the spine. A leak will occur when there is a membrane puncture or rupture that covers the spinal cord. Though most leaks of spinal fluid can be corrected, those that are not corrected need an additional corrective surgery.

Nerve Damage-Nerve damage may cause a decreased sensation and body movement which may affect the functioning of the heart and lungs as well.

Paralysis-This is a major spine surgery risk. This may happen when a spinal cord injury is infected.

Failed Back or Spine Surgery Information

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Failed back surgery is the condition that involves prolonged and continued pain experienced by the patient after surgery. There are a lot of reasons that a spine surgery may or may not work even with the hands of the best surgeons. Despite best indications, spine surgery is still over 95% predictive of a successful result. Basically, the accomplishment of a spine surgery just includes decompression of a pinched nerve root and stabilization of a joint in pain. Other reasons for failed spine surgery include:

  1. Inadequate nerve root decompression
  2. Implant failure
  3. Surgical nerve damage
  4. Preoperative nerve damage
  5. Lesion transfer failure
  6. Epidural fibrosis
  7. Postoperative rehabilitation
  8. Recurrence of spinal stenosis or disc herniation

Postsurgical Pain Predictability
Some forms of spine surgery are more predictable when it comes to reducing the symptoms of patients than others. For example:

  1. A spinal instability spine fusion is a predictable procedure. But, a multi-level lumbar degenerative disc disease fusion surgery may not be successful in alleviating pain after surgery.
  2. A lumbar disc herniation discectomy that causes leg pain is also predictable. However, a lumbar disc herniation discectomy that causes lower back pain may not be successful.

This makes it important to stick to highly successful operations to ensure preoperative identification of an anatomic lesion that is to be corrected during the surgery.
Furthermore, failed spine surgery can be treated by a combination of selective endoscopic discectomy, laser disc decompression, intradiscal infiltration, differential provocative discography and intraforaminal steroids infiltration.

Next, visit the Spine Surgery Center of Excellence, a site devoted entirely to spine surgery and spine treatments. 

Sports Injury Treatment Los Angeles and Beverly Hills

Welcome to the Lapeer Health Sports Medicine Department. Any sport is great for the body, whether it be the stamina we gain from long distance running, or the exhilaration we feel from being in the boxing ring. However, no two bodies are the same and the physical demands that sport can put on us can have a number of negative effects. This is where our specialist program from the Sports Medicine Department comes in, and where our team of qualified physicians can help you to overcome sports injuries, or conditions that are affecting your performance.
We see a wide range of patients walk through the doors of our Sports Medicine Department, from those who have just started jogging to improve their health to professional soccer players who ran before they walked. For that reason, we encourage you not to be shy of visiting the sports department if you don’t consider yourself a sportsman or woman. If you have been injured whilst playing sports, or your ability to perform in your chosen area is affected, then this is the right department for you, regardless of physical or technical ability.

Because sports injuries are often temporary, but have a high chance of returning at a later date due to the patient’s lifestyle, it’s important that your physician is able to weigh up the pros and cons of giving drugs as a treatment, as opposed to ongoing therapy, physical aids (e.g. splints) or a change in sports technique. Our sports medicine physicians are fully trained in sports pharmacology, so that they can mix their knowledge of the correct medicines with the physiological aspects of the area.

Lapeer Surgery Center – Department of Sports Medicine
8920 Wilshire Blvd #101 Beverly Hills,
CA 90211
Tel – (855) 360-9119
Email: [email protected]

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Beverly Hills Surgery Center- Anesthesiology Los Angeles and Beverly Hills


Anesthesiology is the practice of delivering anesthesia to patients during medical procedures. Anesthesiologists are trained physicians who have attended medical school followed by four years of residency training in anesthesiology. Anesthesia is used in many medical procedures and is utilized by virtually every surgical sub-specialty. There are many factors that contribute to the type of anesthesia used during a procedure including drug allergies, diabetes, heart disease, breathing problems, obesity, lung disease, and kidney disease. Anesthesiologists play a vital role in insuring a successful surgical outcome as well as overall patient satisfaction in any surgical procedure.

anesthesia dripThe Department of Anesthesiology at La Peer Health Systems is solely focused on the health of the patient, preparation for surgery, a successful surgery, and managing their patient’s post-surgical pain. Prior to surgery, our anesthesiologists meet with patients to understand the medical history of the patient and decide on the best course of action. The safest, most appropriate anesthetic will be tailored to individual patient needs, with consideration given to patient preference. Following in the spirit of collaboration, the final anesthetic plan will be formulated with the consensus of the patient, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. We believe that it is imperative that the patient is informed and understands their treatment plan.

La Peer Health Systems uses different anesthetic techniques based on each individual including:

  • General anesthesia 
  • Regional anesthesia
  • Local anesthesia
  • Mild to deep sedation

Dr. CalvinOur anesthesia staff is wholly comprised of board-certified physicians with many years of experience in anesthesiology. Our anesthesiologists continue to regularly practice and hone their skills at a large tertiary care hospital in Los Angeles.

La Peer Health Systems was also named one of the 100 Greatest Places To Work by Becker’s ASC Review. The list is compiled through nominations and editorial research and places are chosen based on benefits, wellness initiatives, development opportunities, and overall work environment.

If you have, or feel you may have, an important circumstance or condition that could affect your anesthetic experience before, during, or after surgery, an anesthesiologist will be more than happy to do a consultation with either you or your doctors. Please call us if you would like to set up an appointment at (855) 360-9119 or send us an e-mail at [email protected].


There are several ways anesthesia is administered depending on the procedure. For example, epidurals are often used during childbirth where the person is conscious, but no pain is experienced, whereas, during a surgical procedure the patient is fully sedated and not conscious.

General Anesthesia: General anesthesia is when you are fully sedated and the pain is blocked. It is administered intravenously or through a gas. It is common to not remember the period right after the surgery. This is to lessen the sensation of post-operative pain.

Regional Anesthesia: There are a few types of regional anesthesia: epidural or spinal anesthesia and nerve blocks. A regional anesthesia is when the drug is injected into major nerves to numb a large part of the body. It can be injected into the spine to numb all feeling in the legs, hips, back, etc. You may be awake with this type of anesthesia, but sedation may be given to help you relax or sleep.

Local Anesthesia: A local anesthesia is where a numbing agent is injected into a specific part of the body. These are typically used for minor procedures, such as stitches or mole removal. You typically remain awake during a procedure with a local anesthesia.

Mild sedation: Mild sedation is medication used to help one relax during a procedure. This is often used with local anesthesia. You will still be able to talk and hold a conversation, but with a relaxed feeling. An example of when a mild sedation may be used is during a mole removal or stitches.

Moderate sedation: A moderate sedation is used to help you relax and puts you into a semiconscious state. It is normally used in minor or diagnostic procedures. They can also be used if you are receiving a test like an MRI or CAT scan.

Deep sedation: Deep sedation is used to make patients relax and very sleepy. It is often used along with general anesthesia. Deep sedation may be used after a procedure to help with post-operative pain, and to help you relax and recover. Deep sedation is also often used for procedures such as biopsies or a colonoscopy.

If you have any questions about the types of anesthesia, please contact the Department of Anesthesia at (855) 360-9119 or contact us.

La Peer Health Systems – Department of Anesthesiology
8920 Wilshire Blvd #101
Beverly Hills, CA 90211
(855) 360-9119

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Lin Qin, MD Lin Qin, MD
Li Qin, MD is a board-certified anesthesiologist. He immigrated from China to California at age of
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Dr. Calvin Johnson is an expert anesthesiologist and an integral part of the team at La Peer Health Systems in Beverly Hills. Dr. Johnson is one of the very best in his field read more
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Chronic Pain Management Relief Specialists, Post Surgery Pain Expert, Beverly Hills, Los Angeles

Department of Pain Management

Chronic pain is an unfortunate fact of life for many people. However, with proper medical supervision and work with your pain management doctor, it is manageable. The Department of Pain Management at La Peer Health Systems has pain specialists, nurses, doctors and physicians who will work in a variety of ways to provide the utmost in patient care.

The goal of the Department of Pain Management is to take patients from initial consultation through diagnosis and onto primary treatment and/or surgery if necessary. We will be a constant presence through the pain management process and into aftercare as well. Many patients will return to La Peer for pain relief through minor procedures such as a lumbar epidural steroid injection or a selective nerve root block. These treatments often work for a few weeks or months at a time and with conditions like repetitive migraines a simple injection is well worth a bi-monthly trip.

The department of pain management is also highly concerned with research and clinical trials. Research into pain management for something like repetitive migraines is as important as finding a permanent method of relief for these patients. Depending on your condition and willingness, you may be able to take part in research and possibly make a step towards improving medicine forever.

Medical Conditions:
  • Arthritis
  • Back injury
  • Chronic daily headaches
  • Peripheral nerve damage
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Vulvodynia


  • Lumbar epidural steroid injection
  • Selective nerve root block
  • Cervical (neck) epidural steroid injection
  • Piriformis muscle (hip) injection
If you would like a one-on-one consultation with a skilled member of staff working in the Department of Pain Management then please call La Peer Health Systems (855) 360-9119) or email at [email protected].

Conditions Page

Arthritis: Arthritis is the painful inflammation of the joints. The causes of arthritis depends on the type of arthritis you have. The common causes are autoimmune disorders, wear associated with the aging process, bacterial infection, or a broken bone. The symptoms of arthritis include stiffness in the joint, decreased mobility, inability to bend down or stand straight, tightness in the joints, and redness and/or warmth in the affected area. The treatment for arthritis depends on the severity of the case, but it may include NSAIDs like Aleve, steroid injections, heat and ice packs, or joint replacement.

Back injury: Many patients experience chronic pain after experiencing some sort of back injury including herniated discs, sprains, strains, or a fractured vertebrae. The treatment for chronic pain resulting from a back injury may include a nerve block or a lumbar epidural steroid injection.

Chronic daily headache: Chronic headaches are a debilitating condition for many people. It is very common for a person to have a headache from time to time, but if you are experiencing headaches mos
t days of the week, you may have chronic headaches. The risk factors for chronic daily headaches are anxiety, depression, overuse of pain relievers, obesity, disrupted sleep, neck strain, and snoring. The treatment for chronic head is dependent on the severity of the headaches. The treatment may include nerve blocks, steroid injections, beta blockers, anti-seizure medication, Botox injections, or a local anesthetic.

Fibromyalgia: Fibromyalgia is a condition that affects the musculoskeletal system. The exact causes of the condition are unknown, but the symptoms often start after a major trauma, surgery, serious psychological stress, or infection. Additionally, women are more likely to develop the condition than men. The symptoms of fibromyalgia is a constant, dull pain and tender spots throughout the body. The common tender spots include the back of the neck, the shoulders, the chest, and the hips. Sleep disturbance is also a common symptom and side effect of fibromyalgia.  The treatment for fibromaylgia is a combination of non-steroid pain relievers such as Aleve, relaxation techniques, and prescription pain relievers.

Peripheral nerve damage: There are many different types of nerve damage depending on the type of nerve that was damaged and its function. The risk factors for nerve damage include diabetes, trauma, compartment syndrome, pinched nerves, certain medication, nutritional deficiencies, HIV, and motor neuron disease. The treatment for peripheral nerve damage depends on the reason for the nerve damage. If the nerve damage is a result of an infection or diabetes, antibiotics or regulating your blood sugar will help with nerve pain and reduce the risk of further nerve damage. Other treatments for nerve damage may be nerve blocks and steroid injections.

Vulvodynia: Vulvodynia is a painful condition that affects the opening of the vagina. The causes of vulvadynia are unknown, but it is believed that the causes include damage to the surrounding nerves, hormonal changes, allergies, or a history of sexual abuse. The symptoms of vulvodynia are pain near the vulva, itching, soreness, throbbing, stinging, and painful intercourse. The treatment for vulvodynia are antihistamines to reduce itching, behavioral therapy, local anesthetics, nerve blocks, relaxation techniques, and surgery.


La Peer Health Systems – The Department of Pain Management

8920 Wilshire Blvd #101

Beverly Hills, CA 90211 

(855) 360-9119 La Peer Surgery Center

[email protected]